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The 4x4 model Cougar MRAP is a 3-door, diesel powered, 3-ton capacity 4-wheel drive Mine Resistant Ambush Protected vehicle. The Cougar is equipped with an automatic transmission and in addition to the driver and co-driver, has seating for 4 additional passengers. Each seat is equipped with a 4-point safety harness.The vehicle is equipped with driver/co-driver doors, as well as double doors for the passenger compartment, and a single vehicle accessibility hatch on the roof.

The Cougar is equipped with dual A/C units (24,000/48,000 BTU/hour), is NBC overpressure and filter protected, and is equipped with a 9,000-pound capacity electrically powered winch. The unprepared fording depth is 39 inches, an approach angle of 40 degrees and a departure angle of 50 degrees.The Cougar is capable of travel both on and off road and is equipped with run-flat tire inserts. The Cougar-H is air transportable by the C-17.

The armor package provided by the Cougar-H provides all round coverage against 7.62mm ammunition (the glass is 7.62mm multi-strike resistant.) The Cougar-H can survive the detonation of a 30-pound TNT charge under the front and rear axels and a 15-pound charge under the center of the chassis. Ballistic protection is provided for the radiator, tires, battery compartment, fuel tanks, engine and transmission. The V-shaped hull is specifically designed to redirect the blast out and away from the vehicles passenger area. While the vehicle may be disabled by the explosion, its passengers will not be injured, and the vehicle can be recovered and repaired.

As a result of combat operations in Afghanistan and Iraq (Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom) a need was identified for a series of vehicles designed to survive the explosive threats posed by the Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) as well as conventional mining and ambush tactics employed against Coalition personnel. These vehicles were collectively described as MRAP (Mine Resistant Ambush Protected) capable, and would be specifically built to defeat these threats. One such vehicle is the Cougar. Manufactured by Force Protection Inc., the Cougar has been in production, and in service since 2004.

While new to the US military, vehicles such as the Cougar are not new designs. The Cougar design can trace its origins to the Olifant Manufacturing Company of South Africa, which originally developed the multi-wheeled, "V" shaped blast hull design for use by the South African military in its operations against Angola and Namibia in the 1980s.

These vehicles were designed to have good road speeds and endurance (to allow for the long distances traveled, as well as reduced maintenance requirements because of their wheeled design) and were specifically designed to maximize passenger survivability against small arms ambushes and conventionally laid mines.


Husky VMMD (Vehicle Mounted Mine Detector) or, as it was previously known, the Chubby system, is part of a mine-removal system developed by DCD-Dorbyl Rolling Stock Division of East Rand, Gauteng, South Africa.

The system was developed in the 1970s for the South African Defence Force to clear military convoy routes of mines in Namibia and Angola. The VMMD system consists of two Husky vehicles. The first one acts as a Mine Detection Vehicle (MDV). In the past this vehicle was called a Meerkat and wasn't a 4x4. The second Husky in the system tows a set of three Duisendpoots and is known as a towing /mine detection vehicle (T/MDV) The latest version of the Husky, the 2G, has high sensitivity low metal content detectors, ground penetrating radar, powerful air blowers and a robotic arm. This extra equipment has caused the design of Husky to evolve to take a second crew member. The Husky 2G was voted one of the US Army's Top 10 most innovative advances in Army technology.


The Eland is an air portable light armoured car based on the Panhard AML.Designed and built by South Africa for long-range reconnaissance, it mounts either a 60mm (2.4 in) breech-loading mortar or a Denel 90mm (3.5 in) gun on a very compact chassis. Although lightly armoured, the vehicle's permanent 4X4 drive makes it faster over flat terrain than many tanks.

Eland was developed for the South African Defence Force (SADF) in South Africa's first major arms programme since World War II, with prototypes completed in 1963. By 1991, 1,600 examples had been built for home and export; prominent foreign operators included Morocco and Zimbabwe.Local overhauls incorporating lessons from internal operations have resulted in a vehicle capable of withstanding the unforgiving Southern African environment and highly mobile operational style of the SADF

 The Buffel (Afrikaans: Buffalo) is a mine-protected infantry mobility vehicle used by the South African Army during the South African Border War. The Buffel was also used as an armoured fighting vehicle and proved itself in this role. It has been replaced by the Mamba in South Africa, but remains in use elsewhere, notably Sri Lanka.

The Buffel was introduced in 1978 after it was found that the South African Army had the need for a basic mine protected vehicle. The Buffel was an improvement of the Bosvark which offered little protection to the driver. More than 1,400 were delivered before production stopped. A few of these vehicles found their way into other armies.

The Buffel (Afrikaans for Buffalo) was not a wholly South African built vehicle, but made use of the chassis, engine and some other components of the Mercedes-Benz Unimog, which were married to the armoured driver's cab and separate armoured troop compartment. The driver's cab was situated on the left with the engine compartment on the right. Later models replaced the original Mercedes engine with copies built under license by Atlantis Diesel Engines factory near Cape Town.

Land mine protection was provided by the V-shaped hull underneath these compartments, which quite effectively deflected the blast. The troop compartment contained two plastic tanks in the vee beneath the floor, a 200 litre diesel tank and a 100 litre water tank. The water tank provided drinking water to the occupants by means of a tap at the rear of the vehicle. It was a commonly held misconception amongst the troops that the weight of the water added to the blast protection.

In order to help dissipate the energy from hitting a mine, the large tires were usually filled with water, adding, as was told, about 500 kg per wheel to the vehicle weight.

 The Casspir is a landmine-protected infantry mobility vehicle that has been in use in South Africa for over 30 years. It is a four-wheeled vehicle, used for transport of troops. It can hold a crew of two, plus 12 additional soldiers and associated gear. The Casspir was unique in design when launched, providing for passive mine defence. The main body of the vehicle is raised high above the ground, so when a mine is detonated, the explosion is less likely to damage the crew compartment and kill the occupants. The cross-section of the hull is V-shaped, directing the force of the explosion outwards, further protecting the occupants. The vehicle is also armoured for added mine safety, as well as protection from small arms fire. The Casspir was the inspiration and prototype for the U.S. Marines' MRAP project.

The name 'Casspir' is an anagram of the abbreviations of the customer, the South African Police (SAP), and the design authority, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR - Applied Chemistry Unit that later became MECHEM).Although the Casspir was deployed in townships during the apartheid era, it was initially designed specifically for conditions encountered in the South African Border War. In particular, this conflict called for protection from land mines combined with high manoeuvrability to cover long distances - these requirements led to the distinctive V-shaped hull (for mine protection) and a wheeled chassis.

The Casspir was designed by the CSIR specifically to protect vehicle occupants against landmines. It is certified to protect its occupants against a triple TM-57 mine blast (equivalent to 21 kg of TNT) under a wheel, or a double blast (14 kg of TNT) under the hull. The Casspir has V-bottomed armoured monocoque hull, designed to deflect the force of an explosion outwards, to which a leaf-spring suspension is attached


 The Mbombe is a mine-protected, high-mobility armoured fighting vehicle produced by Paramount Group from South Africa that was launched in 2010. "Mbombe" is named after an African warrior,Ballistic protection: STANAG 4569 level IV (Crew Protection against 14.5 HMG attacks) and mine blast protection: STANAG 4569 Level IV and RPG (10 kg of TNT under hull), anti-tank mine
Light and heavy weapons
M40 recoilless rifle 106 mm
M67 recoilless rifle 90 mm
G1 anti-tank gun 88 mm
76 mm 17 pounder anti-tank
57 mm 6 pounder anti-tank
L/60 40 mm
GDF-002 35 mm twi towed
Zumlac 23 mm ZU-23-2
GAI-BO1 20 mm
GAI-CO1 20 mm
GAI-C04 20 mm
Ystervak 20 mm GAI-C01
ZPU-2 14,5 mm
120 mm mortar Brandt
M3 81 mm mortar
M1 60 mm mortar
Sa-7 Grail missile
SA-14 Gremlin
reen Archer Radar
Cymberline radar
LPD-20 Fire control
AS-2000 artillery target
 The Hippo is a South African armoured personnel carrier. Specially designed to be mine resistant, it can carry eleven infantrymen and a crew of two. The vehicle's remote-operated turret mounts dual 7.62mm machine guns, but like other improvised fighting vehicles, it is only lightly protected.

An interim solution adopted to deal with the threat of land mines deployed by the South West African People's Organization (SWAPO) in northern Ovamboland, the Hippo was simply a blastproof hull fitted to a Bedford RL chassis. Similar to the BTR-152, it offered a staggered troop compartment with seating facing inwards. Vision was restricted to narrow plate glass windows. This layout was universally unpopular and later corrected with the Buffel. There were firing ports for the occupants and a powered machine gun turret could be braced on the open top, though these were seldom fitted. Passengers and crew debussed from a rear deck.

The Hippo Mk1R was based on a M1961 Bedford truck chassis, which was being phased from South African service in 1974. Some 150 were shipped to the South African Police that year, another 5 being donated to the South-West African authorities. Police units left behind several when they withdrew from Rhodesia in 1976; these were retained by Rhodesian Security Forces and later passed on to the Zimbabwe National Army. In 1978, 120 Hippo conversions of M1970 Bedfords was undertaken for the South African Defence Force, which had assumed responsibility for patrols along the Angolan border and needed a new MRAP. They were replaced by the Casspir.














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