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Cargo Securement


Driver's Handbook on Cargo Securement - Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Cargo Securement

Fundamentals of Cargo Securement

Guiding Principle of Cargo Securement

What?

Cargo being transported on the highway must remain secured on or within the transporting vehicle.

When?

The cargo must remain secured on or in the transporting vehicle:

Under all conditions that could reasonably be expected to occur in normal driving.
When a driver is responding in all emergency situations, EXCEPT when there is a crash.

Why?

A truck with cargo on its side.

An improperly secured load can result in:

  • Loss of life
  • Loss of load
  • Damage to the cargo
  • Damage to the vehicle
  • A crash
  • Issuance of citations/fines to driver/carrier
  • The vehicle being placed Out-of-Service.

North American Cargo Securement Standard

What does the Standard cover? (Section 1.1)

Vehicles

  • Commercial vehicles (including a combination of vehicles) that are operated on a highway and have a gross vehicle rating over 4,500 kg (10,000 lb.)

A truck with cargo secured

Gross Vehicle Rating = Greater Than 4,500 kg (10, 000 lb.)

Cargo

  • Any cargo and dangerous goods/hazardous materials, including:
    • All general freight.
    • All equipment carried for vehicle operation.
    • Intermodal containers and their contents.
  • Some specific commodities have additional or different securement requirements (see later sections of this Handbook).
  • Additional requirements under separate regulations may also apply for transportation of certain types of dangerous goods or hazardous materials.

Note: It is assumed that heavy loads carried under special permits would be subject to securement standards contained in the special permit, which may differ from the North American Cargo Securement Standard. Check with your Federal, Provincial, or State government for any permit requirements.

What does the Standard require of the driver and carrier? (Section 2.3)

The following conditions must exist before a driver can operate a commercial motor vehicle and a carrier can require or permit a driver to operate a commercial motor vehicle.

  • The commercial motor vehicle's cargo must be properly distributed and adequately secured.
  • The commercial motor vehicle's structure and equipment must be secured:
    • Tailgate
    • Doors
    • Tarpaulins
    • Spare tire
    • Other equipment used in the vehicle's operation
    • Cargo securing equipment.
  • The cargo or any other object must not:
    • Obscure the driver's view ahead or to the right or left sides (except for drivers of self-steer dollies).
    • Interfere with the free movement of the driver's arms or legs.
    • Prevent the driver's free and ready access to accessories required for emergencies. OR
    • Prevent the free and ready exit of any person from the commercial motor vehicle's cab or driver's compartment.

Note: Inspections are addressed in a separate section. See page 31

What does the Standard require of the cargo? (Section 1.2)

Securement Options
All cargo must be contained, immobilized, or secured.

How Well Must Cargo be Secured?

So that it does not:

  • Leak
  • Spill
  • Blow off the vehicle
  • Fall from the vehicle
  • Fall through the vehicle
  • Otherwise become dislodged from the vehicle
  • Shift upon or within the vehicle to such an extent that the vehicle's stability or maneuverability is adversely affected.

A truck with cargo tipping but not falling over

No rolling, tipping, sliding, or falling from vehicle.

Note: There can be some movement if it doesn't reduce the effectiveness of the securement system.

How well must the securement system work? (Section 1.3)

Each cargo securement system must be able to withstand a minimum amount of force in each direction.

  • Forward Force = 80% of cargo weight when braking while driving straight ahead.
  • Rearward Force = 50% of cargo weight when accelerating, shifting gears while climbing a hill, or braking in reverse.
  • Sideways Force = 50% of cargo weight when turning, changing lanes, or braking while turning.
  • Upward Force = 20% of cargo weight when traveling over bumps in the road or cresting a hill.
    • This requirement is satisfied when the cargo is "Fully Contained."

Illustration of a truck with weights



Driver's Handbook on Cargo Securement - Chapter 2: General Cargo Securement Requirements

General Cargo Securement Requirements

  • The Securement System p. 9
  • Components of a Securement System
  •        Vehicle structure p. 10
  •        Securing devices p. 11
  • Containing, Immobilizing, and Securing Cargo p. 15
  •        Three ways to transport cargo p. 16
  •        Loading the cargo properly p. 19
  •        Restraining the cargo correctly p. 21
  •        Using adequate securing devices p. 27
  •        Aggregate Working Load Limit p. 29
  • Inspection Requirements p. 31


Chain

The Securement System

What is a securement system?

A securement system is a securement method that uses one or a combination of the following elements:

  • Vehicle Structure.
  • Securing Devices.
  • Blocking and Bracing Equipment.

Securement system

What securement system should you choose? (Section 2.1.2)

The securement system chosen must be appropriate for the cargo's size, shape, strength, and characteristics.

Are there any requirements for the cargo? (Section 2.1.2)

The articles of cargo must have sufficient structural integrity to withstand the forces of loading, securement, and transportation.

This includes packaged articles, unitized articles, and articles stacked one on the other.

Components of a Securement System

Vehicle structure (Section 2.1.1)

What is included?

  • Floors
  • Walls
  • Decks
  • Tiedown anchor points
  • Headboards
  • Bulkheads
  • Stakes
  • Posts
  • Anchor points.

Note: Generally, the cab shield is not part of the cargo securement system. However, a front-end structure could be used to provide some restraint against forward movement if the cargo is in contact with it.

How strong must the vehicle structure and anchor points be?

All elements of the vehicle structure and anchor points must be strong enough to withstand the forces described on page 7.

  • Forward force: 0.8 g (80%)
  • Rearward force: 0.5.g (50%)
  • Sideways force: 0.5 g (50%)
  • Upward force: 0.2 g (20%)

All elements of the vehicle structure and anchor points must be in good working order:

  • No obvious damage.
  • No distress.
  • No weakened parts.
  • No weakened sections.

Securing devices (Section 2.1.3)

What is a securing device?

Any device specifically manufactured to attach or secure cargo to a vehicle or trailer.

  • Synthetic Webbing
  • Chain
  • Wire rope
  • Manila rope
  • Synthetic rope
  • Steel strapping
  • Clamps and latches
  • Blocking
  • Front-end structure
  • Grab hooks
  • Binders
  • Shackles
  • Winches
  • Stake pockets
  • D-rings
  • Pocket
  • Webbing ratchet
  • Bracing
  • Friction mat

What is a tiedown?

A combination of securing devices that forms an assembly that:

  • Attaches cargo to, or restrains cargo on a vehicle.
  • Is attached to anchor point(s).

Some tiedowns are attached to the cargo and provide direct resistance to restrain the cargo from movement.

Illustratrion of  tiedowns are attached to the cargo

Some tiedowns pass over or through the cargo. They create a downward force that increases the effect of friction between the cargo and the deck. This friction restrains the cargo.

Illustration of Tiedown passes over cargo

Tiedown passes over cargo

Tiedown construction and maintenance

A tiedown must be designed, constructed, and maintained so that the driver can tighten it(Exception: steel strapping).

All components of a tiedown must be in proper working order.

  • No knots or obvious damage
  • No distress
  • No weakened parts
  • No weakened sections

Tiedown use

Each tiedown must be attached and secured so that it does not become loose or unfastened, open, or release during transit.

All tiedowns and other components of a cargo securement system must be located within the rubrails (when present).

Note: This requirement does not apply when the width of the load extends to or beyond the rubrails.

Tiedown within rubrail

Tiedown within rubrail

Edge protection

Edge protection must be used if a tiedown could be cut or torn when touching an article of cargo. The edge protection itself must also resist crushing, cutting, and abrasion.

Use of edge protection Right: Edge protector

Left: Use of edge protection Right: Edge protector

Blocking and bracing (Section 2.1.4)

Material used

The material used for blocking or bracing and as chocks and cradles must be strong enough to withstand being split or crushed by the cargo or tiedowns.

This requirement also applies to any material used for dunnage.

If wood is used:

  • Hardwood is recommended.
  • It should be properly seasoned.
  • It should be free from rot or decay, knots, knotholes, and splits.

The grain should run lengthwise when using wood for blocking or bracing.

Containing, Immobilizing, and Securing Cargo

To correctly contain, immobilize, or secure cargo, you need to know about:

  • Three ways to transport cargo ..........................p. 16
  • Loading the cargo properly ..............................p. 19
  • Restraining the cargo correctly .........................p. 21
  • Using adequate securing devices ......................p. 27
  • Aggregate Working Load Limit ........................p. 29

Note: These requirements cover all types of cargo except:

  • Commodities in bulk that lack structure or fixed shape (for example, liquids, gases, grain, sand, gravel, aggregate, liquid concrete). Commodities that are transported in the structure of a commercial motor vehicle such as a tank, hopper, or box.

Note:The Standard sets forth specific securement requirements for certain loads. When transporting these commodities, you must use the specific requirements for that commodity.

  • Logs
  • Dressed Lumber and Similar Building Products
  • Metal Coils
  • Paper Rolls
  • Concrete Pipe Loaded Crosswise on a Platform Vehicle
  • Intermodal containers
  • Automobiles, Light Trucks, and Vans
  • Heavy Vehicles, Equipment, and Machinery
  • Flattened or Crushed Vehicles
  • Roll-on/Roll-off and Hook-Lift Containers
  • Large Boulders

Three ways to transport cargo (Section 2.2.1)

All types of cargo must meet one of three conditions:

  • Condition 1: Cargo is fully contained by structures of adequate strength.
    • Cargo cannot shift or tip
    • Cargo is restrained against horizontal movement by vehicle structure or by other cargo. Horizontal movement includes forward, rearward, and side to side.
      Note: If the cargo is contained in a sided vehicle, the vehicle structure MUST be strong enough to withstand the forces described on page 7.
      • Forward force: 0.8 g (80%)
      • Rearward force: 0.5.g (50%)
      • Sideways force: 0.5 g (50%)

        Illustration of cargo fully contained

Fully contained

  • Condition 2: Cargo is immobilized by structures adequate strength or a combination of structure, blocking, and bracing to prevent shifting or tipping.

Illustration of cargo Immobilized

Immobilized

  • Condition 3: To prevent shifting or tipping, cargo is immobilized or secured on or within a vehicle by tiedowns along with:
    • Blocking.
    • Bracing.
    • Friction mats.
    • Other cargo.
    • Void fillers.
    • Combination of these. 

Illustration of cargo secured on a vehicle

Secured on a vehicle

For articles of cargo placed beside each other and secured by side-to-side tiedowns:

  • Either place them in direct contact with each other
  • Or prevent them from shifting towards each other in transit by using blocking or filling the space with other cargo.

Illustration of cargo using more than one point of contact

Some articles have a tendency to roll. To prevent rolling, provide more than one point of contact:

  • Lift the cargo off the deck AND/OR
  • Place chockes, wedges, a cradle, or other equivalent means that prevent rolling. These must be secured to the deck.

Illustration of how to prevent cargo rolling

The method used to prevent rolling must not become unfastened or loose while the vehicle is in transit.

For articles that have a tendency to tip:

  • Prevent tipping or shifting by bracing the cargo.

Illustration of bracing the cargo.

Immobilizting, and Securing Cargo: Restraining the cargo correctly (Section 2.2.3.1)

How many tiedowns are required?

If cargo is not prevented from forward movement (for example, by the headboard, bulkhead, other cargo, or tiedown attached to the cargo), secure the cargo according to the following requirements:

Article Description Minimum # of Tiedowns
  • 1.52 m (5 ft) or shorter
  • 500 kg (1,100 lb.) or lighter
1


Illustration of one tie down
 

Article Description Minimum # of Tiedowns
  • 1.52 m (5 ft) or shorter
  • Over 500 kg (1,100 lb.)
2


Illustration of two tie downs
 

Article Description Minimum # of Tiedowns
More than 1.52 m (5 ft) but 3.02 m (10 ft) or less 2
 
Diagram of truck cargo that is 3.65 meters (12 feet) and 600 kilograms (1320 pounds). Thus there are three tiedowns for the cargo.
 
When cargo is prevented from forward movement (for example, by the headboard, bulkhead, other cargo, or tiedown), secure the cargo according to the following requirements:
 
Article Description Minimum # of Tiedowns
All Cargo 1 tiedown for every 3.04 m (10 ft), or part thereof
 

Diagram of two truck cargo pieces. The first cargo piece is 3.65 meters (12 feet) and 600 kilograms (1320 pounds) and it has 2 tiedowns. The second cargo piece is 1.21 meters ( 4 feet) and 600 kilograms (1320 pounds) and it has one tiedown over it

Note: A vehicle transporting one or more articles of cargo such as, but not limited to, machinery or fabricated structural items (e.g., steel or concrete beams, crane booms, girders, and trusses, etc.) which, because of their design, size, shape, or weight, must be fastened by special methods.

However, any article of cargo carried on that vehicle must be securely and adequately fastened to the vehicle.

How should tiedowns be attached?

  • Tiedowns can be used in two ways:
    • Attached to the cargo
    • Tiedowns attached to the vehicle and attached to the cargo.
    • Tiedowns attached to the vehicle, pass through or aroundan article of cargo, and then are attached to the vehicle again.
  • Pass over the cargo
    • Tiedowns attached to the vehicle, passed over the cargo, and then attached to the vehicle again.

Tiedown placement

  • Place the tiedown as close as possible to the spacer.
  • Position the tiedowns as symetrically as possible over the length of the article.

Diagram of truck cargo where the two tiedowns are right next to the spacer

  • Position the tiedowns to preserve the integrity of the article.

A diagram on two pieces of truck cargo. The cargo pieces are next to each other and there are four tiedowns, one and each end of the cargo. This is a bad setup and the cargo can then move around. Another diagram show the proper positioning of the tiedowns when two cargo pieces are next to each other. This diagram has four tiedowns as well but each tiedown is right next to the spacer.

Tiedowns attached to the cargo

Tiedowns attached to the cargo work by counteracting the forces acting on the cargo. 

The angle where the tiedown attaches to the vehicle should be shallow, not deep (ideally less than 45).

To counteract forward movement, attach the tiedown so it pulls the cargo toward the rear of the vehicle.

To counteract rearward movement, attach the tiedown so it pulls the cargo toward the front of the vehicle.

A diagram of a truck with cargo tied down and a sideward movement of .5 g ( 50 percent).

To counteract movement to one side, attach the tiedown so it pulls the cargo toward the opposite side of the vehicle.

A diagram of a truck with cargo tied down and a upward movement of .2 g (20 percent).

To counteract upward movement, attach tiedowns to opposing sides of the cargo so they pull the cargo down.

Tiedowns that pass over the cargo

Tiedowns that pass over the cargo work by increasing the effective weight of the cargo (make the cargo seem heavier). This increases the pressure of the cargo on the deck and keeps the cargo from shifting.

Tension these tiedowns to as high an initial tension as possible.

The steeper the tiedown angle, the less shifting (ideally more than 45).

Four diagrams of trucks with cargo tied down. The first truck has cargo that is very tall so the tiedown angle is very close to 90 degrees. The height of the cargo will decrease for the other three trucks but even for the truck with the smallest cargo, its tiedown is still 45 degrees at a minimum.

What should you use in low-friction situations?

When there is low friction between the cargo and the deck (for example, with snow, ice, sand, gravel, and oil):

  • Use tiedowns attached to the cargo.
  • Use a means to improve the friction such as friction mats or tiedown that pass over the cargo.
  • Use blocking and tiedowns.

Containing, Immobilizing, and Securing Cargo: Using adequate securing devices

What is a Working Load Limit (WLL)?

The Working Load Limit is the maximum load that may be applied to a component of a cargo securement system during normal service.

The WLL is usually assigned by the component manufacturer.

Picture of Working Load Limit - W L L 3,000 K G 6,600 L B S
Indicator of Working Load Limit

WLL for tiedowns (Section 2.1.6)

The WLL for a tiedown is the lowest WLL of any of its parts or the WLL of the anchor points it is attached to, whichever is less. Every device contributes to the WLL of the securement system.

For a synthetic webbing tiedown, the WLL is the working load limit of the tiedown assembly or the anchor point it is attached to, whichever is less.

Note: The minimum WLL requirement for the securement system is 50%. More tiedown capacity should be used if you need to secure an article against any movement.

WLL for blocking systems (Section 2.1.5)

The WLL of all components used to block cargo from forward movement must be 50% (or more) of the weight of the article being blocked.

Containing, Immobilizing, and Securing Cargo
Using adequate securing devices (continued)

Working Load Limits: marked components (Section 2.1.6)

Some manufacturers mark their manufactured securing devices with a numeric WLL value. The WLL for these devices is equal to the numeric value assigned by the manufacturer.

Other manufacturers mark components using a code or symbol that is defined in a recognized standard. For example:

A piece of grade 7 chain may be marked with a 70 or 700, in accordance with the standard of the National Association of Chain Manufacturers. The standard then gives the WLL for that piece of chain, depending on its size.

Working Load limits: unmarked components (Section 2.1.7)

Any securing device that is not marked by the manufacturer is considered to have a WLL as specified in Appendix A: Default WLLs for Unmarked Tiedowns.

Carriers are recommended to purchase and use components that are rated and marked by their manufacturer. In that way, the carrier, driver, shipper and inspector can all verify that the proper equipment is being used for the job.

Note: Friction mats, which are not marked by the manufacturer, are assumed to provide a resistance to horizontal movement equal to 50% of the cargo weight that is resting on the mat.

Containing, Immobilizing, and Securing Cargo

Aggregate Working Load Limit (Section 2.2.3)

What is the Aggregate Working Load Limit?

The sum of the working load limits of each device used to secure an article on a vehicle is called the aggregate working load limit.

How do you calculate Aggregate Working Load Limit for tiedowns?

To calculate Aggregate Working Load limit, add together:

50% of the WLL of each end section of a tiedown that is attached to an anchor point.
50% of the WLL of each end section that is attached to the cargo.

Example:
   50% of A 
+ 50% of B
+ 50% of C 
+ 50% of D 
+ 50% of E 
+ 50% of F 
+ 50% of G
+ 50% of H
= Aggregate Working Load Limit

[Diagram of tied down truck cargo that points out the 8 points used to measure the working load limit]

Example:
   50% of A 
+ 50% of B 
+ 50% of C 
+ 50% of D
= Aggregate Working Load Limit

[Diagram of tied down truck cargo that points out the 4 points used to measure the working load limit]

Containing, Immobilizing, and Securing Cargo

Aggregate Working Load Limit (Section 2.2.3) (continued)

Example:
   50% of A 
+ 50% of B 
+ 50% of C 
+ 50% of D
= Aggregate Working Load Limit

[Diagram of tied down truck cargo that points out the 4 points used to measue the working load limit]

How much should the Aggregate Working Load Limit be?

The aggregate working load limit of any securement system must be at least 50% of the weight of the cargo being secured.

[Picture of cargo tied down on a truck]

Inspection Requirements (Section 2.3.2)

The driver is responsible for the following cargo securement inspection activities.

Driver action required Pre-Trip Within first 80 km (50 mi) When duty status of driver changes At 3 hour intervals or every 240 km (150 mi), whichever is first
Inspect Cargo and Securing devices [Check Mark] [Check Mark] [Check Mark] [Check Mark]
Inform Carrier if Packaging is Not Adequate [Check Mark]      
Adjust Cargo and/or Securing devices As necessary As necessary As necessary As necessary
Add Additional Securing devices As necessary As necessary As necessary As necessary

Inspection Requirements (Section 2.3.2) (continued)

Note: (Section 2.3.3) The inspection rules in 2.3.2 do not apply to the driver of a sealed commercial motor vehicle who has been ordered not to open it to inspect its cargo or to the driver of a commercial motor vehicle that has been loaded in a manner that makes inspection of its cargo impracticable.

Driver inspection checklist

Pre-Trip

Make sure that cargo is properly distributed and adequately secured (in other words, according to the Standard).
Make sure that all securement equipment and vehicle structures are in good working order and used consistent with their capability.
Stow vehicle equipment.
Make sure that nothing obscures front and side views or interferes with the ability to drive the vehicle or respond in an emergency.
Inform carrier if packaging is not adequate. For example:

Banding is loose or not symmetrical on package.
Banding attachment device(s) are inefficient.
Wrapping is broken or ineffective.
Pallet are broken.

Periodic inspections during transit

Inspect cargo and securing devices.
Adjust cargo or load securement devices as necessary to ensure that cargo cannot shift on or within, or fall from, the commercial motor vehicle.
As necessary, add more securing devices.

Law enforcement inspections

Law enforcement is responsible for roadside inspections in accordance with federal, state, or provincial laws.


Driver's Handbook on Cargo Securement - Chapter 3: Logs

Picture of a truck with a cargo of logs.

What Does This Section Cover?

The standard defines a log as all natural wood that retains the original shape of the bole (trunk) of a treee whether raw, partiall processed, or fully processed.

  • Raw: All tree species that have been harvested, with bark; may have been trimmed or cut to length
  • Partially processed: Fully or partially debarked, or further reduced in length
  • Fully processed: Utility poles, trated poles, log cabin building components

The specific requirements for logs cover shortwood and longwood.

Shortwood

  • Normally up to about 2.5 m (100 in) in length.
  • No longer than 4.9 m (16 ft) in length.
  • Also called:
    • Cut-up logs
    • Cut-to-length logs
    • Bolts
    • Pulpwood.
    • Longwood
  • Anything not considered shortwood.
  • Also called:
    • Long logs
    • Treelength.

Exceptions to the specific requirements (Section 3.1.1)

The following types of logs are not covered by the specific logs requirements:

  • Logs unitized by banding or other comparable means. [Secure according to general cargo securement requirements (Section 2).]
  • Loads of no more than four processed logs. [Secure according to general cargo securement requirements (Section 2).]
  • Firewood, stumps, debris, other short logs, and longer logs. [Transport in a vehicle or container enclosed on both sides, the front, and the rear and strong enough to contain them.]

What's in a stack?

Some stacks may be made up of both shortwood and longwood.
Any stack that includes shortwood must follow the shortwood securement requirements.

Exception: If shortwood is embedded in load of longwood, it can be treated as longwood.

Picture of the back of truck hauling a cargo of logs.

Components of the Securement System (Section 3.1.2)

Specially designed vehicle

Requirements

  • Vehicle must be designed and built, or adapted, for transportation of logs.
  • Vehicle must be fitted with a means to cradle the logs and prevent rolling, such as:
    • Bunks.
    • Bolsters.
    • Stakes. OR
    • Standards.
  • All vehicle components must be designed and built to withstand all anticipated operational forces without failure, accidental release, or permanent deformation.

Stakes

Requirement

  • If stakes or standards are not permanently attached to the vehicle, secure the stakes so that they do not separate from the vehicle.

Tiedowns

Requirements

  • Use tiedowns in combination with bunks, stakes, or standards and bolsters to secure the load.
  • All tiedowns must have a working load limit not less than 1,800 kg (4,000 lb.).
  • Tension tiedowns as tightly as possible but not beyond their working load limit.

Use of the Securement System (Section 3.1.3)

Packing requirements

  • Requirement: Logs must be solidly packed.
  • Requirement: Outer bottom logs must be in contact with and rest solidly against bunks, bolsters, stakes, or standards.
  • Requirement: Each outside log on the side of a stack of logs must touch at least two bunks, bolsters, stakes, or standards. If one end of the log doesn't touch a stake:
    • It must rest on other logs in a stable manner.
    • It must extend beyond the stake, bunk, bolster, or standard.
  • Requirement: The center of the highest log on each side or end must be below the top of each stake, bunk, or standard.

Diagram of a truck cargo of logs. There are two tie downs towards the center and two poles towards to ends of the logs to secure this cargo
Acceptable Packaging

  • Requirement: There are two options for the upper logs that form the top of the load:
    • Either they must be crowned
    • Or each log that is not held in place by contact with other logs or stakes, bunks, or standards must be held in place by a tiedown.

Diagram of back of truck hauling logs. This cargo has two tiedowns down the center of the cargo that start at the top and tie in the bottom. There are also two poles at the top and bottom of the cargo to secure the load.
Acceptable placement of top logs

Securement requirements

  • Tighten tiedowns at initial loading.
    • Do not tension beyond the tiedown's working load limit.
  • Check the load and tiedowns at entry onto a public road, in addition to the intervals specified on page x. Adjust load and tiedowns as needed.
  • Use additional tiedowns or securing devices when there is low friction between logs and they are likely to slip on each other (for example, logs are wet or coated with sawdust).

Vehicle Types

Picture of a Rail Vehicle
Rail Vehicle

Picture of a Frame Vehicle
Frame Vehicle

Picture of a Flatbed Vehicle
Flatbed Vehicle

Special Circumstances: Securing Shortwood Logs Loaded Crosswise on Frame, Rail, and Flatbed Vehicles (Section 3.1.4)

Lower tier requirements

  • The end of a log in the lower tier must never extend more than 1/3 of the log's total length beyond the nearest supporting structure. This prevents tipping when the vehicle turns.

Tiedowns requirements

  • Use two tiedowns to secure one stack of shortwood loaded crosswise.
    • Attach the tiedowns to the vehicle frame at the front and rear of the load.
  • Position tiedowns approximately 1/3 and 2/3 of the length of the logs.

Diagram of back of truck hauling logs.  This cargo has two tiedowns down the center of the cargo that start at the top and tie in the bottom.  There are also two poles at the top and bottom of the cargo to secure the load.  This is a  acceptable securement of one stack loaded crosswise
Acceptable securement of one stack loaded crosswise

Requirements for dividing vehicles over 10 m (33 ft)

  • Vehicles over 10 m (33 ft) must be equipped with center stakes, or comparable devices, to divide it into sections of equal length.
  • Each tiedown must:
    • Secure the highest log on each side of the center stake.
    • Be fastened below these logs.
  • Three securement options:
    • Option #1: Tiedowns may be fixed at each end and tensioned from the middle.
    • Option #2: Tiedowns may be fixed in the middle and tensioned from each end.
    • Option #3: Tiedowns may pass through a pulley or equivalent device in the middle and tensioned from one end.

Crosswise stacks on divided vehicle over 10m (33 ft) long

Crosswise stacks on divided vehicle over 10m (33 ft) long

Stakes/structure and tiedowns requirements

Anchor any structure or stake that is being forced upward when the tiedowns are being tensioned.

Additional requirements securement for two stacks side-by-side

  • In addition to the requirements for shortwood loaded crosswise, load two stacks side-by-side so that:
    • There is no space between the stacks of logs.
    • The outside of each stack is raised at least 2.5 cm (1 in) within 10 cm (4 in) of the end of the logs or from the side of the vehicle.
    • The highest log is no more than 2.44 m (8 ft) above the deck.
    • At least one tiedown is used lengthwise across each stack.

Diagram of the back of a truck where the log cargo has two stacks inside the truck. Each stack has two tiedowns and one pole at the bottom of the load for securing purposes. This is a acceptable securement of two stacks of shortwood logs loaded crosswise
Acceptable securement of two stacks of shortwood logs loaded crosswise

Special Circumstances: Securing Logs Loaded Lengthwise on Flatbed and Frame Vehicles (Section 3.1.5)

Logs loaded lengthwise on these vehicles must meet these requirements in addition to the other logs requirements on pages 38-39.

Requirements for shortwood loaded lengthwise

  • Shortwood must be cradled in a bunk or contained by stakes.
  • Logs should be centered in the bunk.
  • Each outside log bearing against stakes should extend at least 0.15 m (6 in) beyond the stakes at each end.

Shortwood and tiedowns requirements

Two tiedowns

  • Secure each stack of shortwood with at least two tiedowns.

One tiedown

  • A stack can be secured with one tiedown if all logs in the stack less than 3.04 m (10 ft) are:
    • Blocked in the front by a headboard strong enough to restrain the load or by another stack of logs.
    • Blocked in the rear by the vehicle's end structure or another stack of logs.
  • Position the one tiedown about midway between bunks, stakes, or standards.

Requirements for securing longwood loaded lengthwise

  • Longwood must be cradled in two or more bunks or contained by stakes.
  • Each outside log should bear against at least two stakes, one near each end of the log.
  • Each end of the log should extend at least 0.15 m (6 in) beyond the stakes.
  • If shorter logs are carried on top of the stack, secure each log with at least two tiedowns.

Longwood and tiedown requirements

  • Secure each stack of longwood with at least two tiedowns at positions along the load that provide effective securement.
  • Secure each outside log of a stack with at least two tiedowns.

Working load limit for longwood and shortwood loaded lengthwise

The aggregate working load limit for all tiedowns must be no less than 1/6 the weight of the stack of logs.

Note: This requirement is much less than the general requirement of an aggregate working load limit equal to 1/2 the weight of the load. This lowered requirement recognizes that the bunks/stakes help to prevent slippage.

Special Circumstances: Securing Logs Transported on Pole Trailers (Section 3.1.6)

Requirements for logs on pole trailers

  • Secure the load in one of these ways:
    • Either at least one tiedown at each bunk.
    • Or at least two tiedowns used as wrappers that encircle the entire load.

Wrapper requirements

  • Position front and rear wrappers at least 3.04 m (10 ft) apart.

Large logs - shift prevention requirement

  • Use chock blocks to prevent the shifting of large diameter single and double log loads.

Large logs - additional tiedowns requirement

  • Secure large diameter logs that are above the bunks to the underlying load with at least two additional wrappers.
Picture of truck hauling a cargo of logs


Driver's Handbook on Cargo Securement - Chapter 4: Dressed Lumber and Similar B

truck hauling building materials

What Does This Section Cover? (Section 3.2.1)

The requirements for dressed lumber and similar building materials section apply to certain products when they are transported as bundles on flatbed and open vehicles.

These products are:

  • Dressed lumber.
  • Packaged lumber.
  • Engineered building products (e.g. plywood, drywall, other materials of similar shape).

Note: Lumber or building products that are not bundled or pack aged should be treated as loose items and transported in accordance with the general cargo securement requirements in Section 2.

Note: Bundles carried in a closed vehicle should be immobilized or contained in accordance with the general cargo securement requirements in Section 2.

Positioning and Securing Bundles (Section 3.2.2)

Requirements for bundles placed side by side on a platform vehicle

Choose one of two options for positioning bundles:

  • Option #1:
    • Place bundles in direct contact with each other.
  • Option #2:
    • Provide a means (such as dunnage or blocking) to prevent the bundles from shifting towards each other.

Diagram of cargo that is tied down but not in direct contact with each other. This a not an acceptable way to load the cargo. A second diagram with cargo tied down but this time, the two pieces are in direct contact with each other. This is an acceptable way to load the truck.

Requirements for bundles in one tier

  • Secure bundles in accordance with general cargo securement requirements (Section 2).
  • Web tiedowns are often used to secure building materials.

Requirements for Securement System:

  • In proper working order with no damaged or weakened components that affect their performance or reduce their working load limit.
  • No knots.
  • Attached and secured in a manner that prevents them from coming loose during transit.
  • Able to be tightened by a driver of an in-transit vehicle.
  • Located inboard of rub rails whenever practicable.
  • Edge protection must be used when a tiedown would be subject to abrasion or cutting.

Requirements for securing bundles in two or more tiers

There are four options for securing bundles of dressed lumber that are transported in two or more tiers. Choose one of the four.

  • Option #1:
    • To block side-to-side movement, block the bundles with stakes on the sides of the vehicle. Secure the bundles by tiedowns laid out over the top tier, as outlined in Section 2.

Diagram of truck cargo where there are stakes on placed on each side of the cargo

  • Option #2:
    • To block side-to-side movement, use blocking or high friction devices between the tiers. Secure the bundles by tiedowns laid out over the top tier, as outlined in Section 2.

Diagram of a truck use blocking or high friction devices between the tiers. Secure the bundles by tiedowns laid out over the top tier

High Friction Devices

  • Friction mat
  • Piece of wood with friction surface
  • Cleated mat
  • Other specialized equipment

Picture of a friction mat

  • Option #3:
    • Place bundles directly on top of other bundles or on spacers. 
    • Secure the stack of bundles with tiedowns:
      • Tiedowns over the second tier of bundles or at 1.85 m (6 ft) above the trailer deck (whichever is greater).
      • Tiedowns for other multiple tiers not over 1.85 m (6 ft) above the trailer.
      • Tiedowns over the top tier of bundles with a minimum of 2 tiedowns over each top bundle longer than 1.52 m (5 ft).

Diagram of truck cargo that has three levels. There are two tiedowns on top level of the cargo, two tiedowns on the second level, and two friction pieces below each level of the cargo.

Spacer Requirements

  • The length of spacers must provide support to all pieces in the bottom row of the bundle.
  • The width of each spacer must be equal or greater than the height.
  • Spacers must provide good interlayer friction.
  • If spacers are comprised of layers of material, the layers must be unitized or fastened together to ensure that the spacer performs as a single piece of material.
  • Option #4:
    • Secure the bundles by tiedowns over each tier of bundles in accordance with the general cargo securement requirements (Section 2).
    • Use at least 2 tiedowns over each bundle on the top tier that is longer than 1.52 m (5 ft).

Diagram of truck cargo where one set of cargo has three levels and and second set of cargo has two levels. For both sets of cargo, there are two tiedowns at each level of the cargo.

Suggestion to Increase Safety

Choose one of two options for stopping forward motion:

  • Option #1
    • Place bundles against bulkhead/front end structure.
  • Option #2
  • When different tiers need to be secured, use a combination of blocking equipment and tiedowns.

Diagram of truck cargo where there are two levels of the cargo. There are two tiedowns over the top level of the cargo and two blockers between the two levels.
 


 

Driver's Handbook on Cargo Securement - Chapter 5: Metal Coils

Coil of rolled sheet metal

What Does This Section Cover?

This section applies to coils of rolled sheet metal. Coiled wire is secured using the general cargo securement requirements (section 2).

Size of coil (Section 3.3.1)

All metal coil shipments that, individually or together, weigh 2,268 kg (5,000 lb.) or more must be secured according to the specific requirements in this section.
Exception: Metal coils that weigh less than 2,268 kg (5,000 lb.) may be secured according to general securement requirements (Section 2).

Orientation of coil

Eyes vertical

Diagram of a metal coil set up vertical

Eyes crosswise

Diagram of a metal coil set up crosswise

Eyes lengthwise

Diagram of a metal coil set up lengthwise

Type of Vehicle

The specific requirements are for metal coils transported:

  • On flatbed vehicles.
  • In sided vehicles with or without anchor points.
  • In intermodal containers with or without anchor points.

Securing Coils Transported With Eyes Vertical on a Vehicle with Anchor Points (Section 3.3.2)

If the coil is mounted on a pallet:

  • Coil must be fastened to pallet so it cannot move on the pallet.
  • Pallet must be strong enough to not collapse under Performance Criteria forces (Section 1).
  • Use a friction mat between pallet and deck.

Diagram of a metal coil set up vertical

Requirements for securing a single coil (Section 3.3.2.1)

To prevent the coil from tipping forward, rearward, and sideways, arrange tiedowns to include the following:

  • Attach at least one tiedown diagonally across eye of coil from left side of vehicle to right side of vehicle.
  • Attach at least one tiedown diagonally across eye of coil from right side of vehicle to left side of vehicle.
  • Attach at least one tiedown over eye of coil from side-to-side.
  • To prevent forward movement, use one of these:
    • Blocking.
    • Bracing.
    • Friction mats.
    • A tiedown passed around the front of coil.
  • Attach at least one tiedown against front of row of coils to restrain against forward motion.
    • If possible, angle between tiedown and deck should be less than 45, when viewed from the side of the vehicle.
  • Attach at least one tiedown against rear of row of coils to restrain against rearward motion.
    • If possible, angle between tiedown and deck should be less than 45, when viewed from the side of the vehicle.
  • Attach at least one tiedown over top of each coil or side-by-side row of coils to restrain against vertical motion.
    • Tiedowns going over top of coil(s) must be as close as possible to eye of coil.
  • Arrange tiedowns, blocking, or bracing to prevent shifting or tipping in all directions.

Diagram of a 8 metal coils set up vertical. They are all next to each other, tied down, and there are blocker bar at the top and bottom of the cargo.

Securing Coils Transported With Eyes Crosswise on a Vehicle with Anchor Points (Section 3.3.3)

There are three requirements for coils transported with eyes crosswise:

Prevent the coil from rolling

  • Attach one tiedown forward.
  • Attach one tiedown rearward.

Diagram of a metal coil set up crosswise and the details of how it is tied down. There is one tie down through the metal coil, two spacer bars below the coil and tie downs on each side.

Requirements for securing a single coil (Section 3.3.3.1)

Prevent the coil from rolling

  • Prevent the coil from rolling by supporting it:
    • Timbers, chocks, or wedges held in place by coil bunks or similar devices to prevent them from coming loose.
    • A cradle (for example, two hardwood timbers and two coil bunks) that is restrained from sliding by:
      • Friction mats under the cradle.
      • Nailed wood blocking or cleats.
      • Placing a tiedown around the front of the cradle.
  • The support must:
    • Support the coil just above the deck.
    • Not become unintentionally unfastened or loose in transit.

Note: The use of nailed blocking or cleats as the sole means to secure timbers, chocks or wedges, or a nailed wood cradle, is prohibited.

One tiedown forward

  • Attach at least one tiedown through the eye of the coil to restrain against forward motion.
    • If possible, the angle between the tiedown and the deck should be less than 45.

One tiedown rearward

  • Attach at least one tiedown through the eye of the coil to restrain against rearward motion.
    • If possible, the angle between the tiedown and the deck should be less than 45.

Diagram of two crosswide coils where each has two tiedowns that go through the coil. These tiedowns are on each end of the coil and represent the Correct use of tiedowns for single coil

Note: Attaching tiedowns diagonally through the eye of a coil to form an X-pattern when viewed from above the vehicle is prohibited. (Section 3.3.3.2)

Diagram of two tiedowns that are twisted together inside the metal coil. This is an bad example and represents the X-pattern prohibited for tiedowns

Note: If a tiedown is used around the front of the cradle, it does not count towards the aggregate WLL for tiedowns through the eye of the coil.

Securing Coils Transported With Eyes Lengthwise on a Vehicle with Anchor Points (Section 3.3.4)

Requirements for securing an individual coil

There are three options for safely securing individual coils that are loaded with their eyes lengthwise. Blocking and supporting the coils is the same. The difference is in the tiedown arrangement.

Diagram of an lengthwise coil. This coil had two tiedowns that go through the coil and one tie down that goes over the top. There is also a blocking bar used at the top of the coil to secure the coil.
Eyes Lengthwise

Prevent the coil from rolling

  • Prevent the coil from rolling by supporting it:
    • Timbers, chocks, or wedges held in place by coil bunks or similar devices to prevent them from coming loose.
    • A cradle (for example, two hardwood timbers and two coil bunks) that is restrained from sliding by:
      • Placing friction mats under the cradle
      • Using nailed wood blocking or cleats against the front timber
      • Placing a tiedown around the front of the cradle.
  • The support must:
    • Support the coil off the deck.
    • Not become unintentionally unfastened or loose in transit.

Note: The use of nailed blocking or cleats as the sole means to secure timbers, chocks or wedges, or a nailed wood cradle, isprohibited.

Tiedowns, Single Coil Option #1 (Section 3.3.4.1)

  • Attach at least one tiedown diagonally from the left side of the vehicle, through the eye, to the right side of the vehicle.
    • If possible, the angle between the tiedown and the deck should be less than 45, when viewed from the side of the vehicle.
  • Attach at least one tiedown diagonally from the right side of the vehicle, through the eye, to the left side of the vehicle.
    • If possible, the angle between the tiedown and the deck should be less than 45, when viewed from the side of the vehicle.
  • Attach at least one tiedown side-to-side over the top of the coil.
  • Use blocking or friction mats to prevent forward movement.

Diagram of lengthwise tied down coil there is one diagonal tiedown from left to right and one diagonal tiedown from right to left. There is also a tiedown over the top. This is considered
Option #1 Single Coil (Eye Lengthwise)

Tiedowns, Single Coil Option #2 (Section 3.3.4.2)

Option #2 is the same as Option #1, except the tiedowns that attach through the eye of the coil are straight instead of diagonal.

  • Attach at least one tiedown straight from the left side of the vehicle, through the eye, and back to the left side of the vehicle.
    • If possible, the angle between the tiedown and the deck should be less than 45, when viewed from the side of the vehicle.
  • Attach at least one tiedown straight from the right side of the vehicle, through the eye, and back to the right side of the vehicle.
    • If possible, the angle between the tiedown and the deck should be less than 45, when viewed from the side of the vehicle.
  • Attach at least one tiedown side-to-side over the top of the coil.
  • Use blocking or friction mats to prevent forward movement.

Single Coil (Eye Lengthwise)
Option #2 Single Coil (Eye Lengthwise)

Tiedowns, Single Coil Option #3 (Section 3.3.4.3)

Option #3 is the same as Options #1 and #2, except that the two tiedowns that attach through the eye of the coil are replaced with two tiedowns that pass over the front and the rear of the coil.

  • Attach at least one tiedown over the top of the coil near the front of the coil.
  • Attach at least one tiedown over the top of the coil near the rear of the coil.
  • Use blocking or friction mats to prevent forward movement.

Diagram of lengthwise tied down coil where there are two tiedowns over the top of the coil.
Option #3 Single Coil (Eye Lengthwise)

Requirements for securing rows of coils (Section 3.3.4.4)

A row of coils is three or more coils loaded in the same way and in a line.

Diagram of 6 lengthwise coils. There are 2 columns of 3 coils where each row of coils has two tiedowns over the top.

Row of Coils

Prevent the coil from rolling

  • Prevent the coil from rolling by supporting it:
    • Timbers, chocks, or wedges held in place by coil bunks or similar devices to prevent them from coming loose.
    • A cradle (for example, two hardwood timbers and two coil bunks) that is restrained from sliding by:
      • Placing friction mats under the cradle
      • Using nailed wood blocking or cleats against the front timber
      • Placing a tiedown around the front of the cradle.
  • The support must:
    • Support the coil just above the deck.
    • Not become unintentionally unfastened or loose in transit.

Note: The use of nailed blocking or cleats as the sole means to secure timbers, chocks or wedges, or a nailed wood cradle, isprohibited.

Tiedowns

  • Attach at least one tiedown over the top of each coil or side-by-side row, located near the front of the coil.
  • Attach at least one tiedown over the top of each coil or side-by-side row, located near the rear of the coil.
  • Use blocking or friction mats to prevent forward movement.

Diagram of 6 lengthwise coils. There are 2 columns of 3 coils where each row of coils has two tiedowns over the top.

Acceptable securement of a row of coils (Eyes Lengthwise)

Securing Coils Transported in a Sided Vehicle or Intermodal Container without Anchor Points (Section 3.3.5)

To prevent metal coils from moving horizontally and/or tipping:

  • Follow general cargo securement requirements (Section 2).
  • Secure the coils using:
    • Blocking and bracing
    • Friction mats
    • A combination of these.

The securement system used must prevent movement in directions (see Section 1).


 


Driver's Handbook on Cargo Securement - Chapter 6: Paper Rolls

Paper rolls

What Does This Section Cover? (Section 3.4.1)

The rules in this section apply to shipments of paper rolls, which individually or together, weigh 2268 kg (5000 lb.) or more.

Note: Shipments of paper rolls that weigh less than 2268 kg (5000 lb.), and paper rolls that are unitized on a pallet may either be secured in accordance this section or with the general cargo securement requirements (Section 2).

Note: This section does not apply to small rolls of paper shipped in cartons/containers such as toilet paper or paper towels that would be used in the kitchen. This type of product is covered in the general cargo securement requirements (Section 2).

Plan a Securement System for Paper Rolls

  • Select a good load pattern.
  • Block, brace, or immobilize paper rolls to make sure they are prevented from sliding, tipping, or rolling.
  • Prevent significant movement of small groups of paper rolls when movement is not prevented by other cargo or by the vehicle structure.
  • Symmetrically stack paper rolls when eyes are horizontal.
  • Make sure that stacks are secured to prevent significant movement.
  • Use friction mats to prevent horizontal movement.
  • Use tiedowns that pass over the paper rolls to increase the effect of friction.
  • Use tiedowns when rolls are loaded on flatbeds or curtain-sided vehicles.

Special Circumstances: Loading and Securing Paper Rolls with Eyes Vertical in a Sided Vehicle (Section 3.4.2)

Requirements for placement

  • Place paper rolls together in a group so that the structure of the group can be maintained.
  • Place paper rolls against:
    • The front and walls of the vehicle
    • Each other
    • Other cargo.
  • Usually the roll is secure if a paper roll has 3 well-separated points of contact with the vehicle, other rolls, or other cargo.

Diagram of paper roll that is tied down twice to the truck and once to another paper roll. This represents the 3 Points of Contact

Requirements for preventing side-to-side movement

If there are not enough paper rolls in the shipment to reach the walls of the vehicle, prevent side-to-side movement by one of these methods:

  • Blocking
  • Bracing
  • Tiedowns
  • Void fillers
  • Friction mats
  • Banding the rolls together

Requirements for preventing rearward movement

When any void behind a group of paper rolls (including rolls at the rear of the vehicle) is greater than the diameter of the paper rolls, prevent rearward movement by one of these methods.

  • Friction mats
  • Blocking
  • Bracing
  • Tiedowns
  • Banding to other rolls

Diagram of truck properly loaded with paper rolls

Requirements for preventing paper rolls from tipping

Situation #1:

  • Paper roll is not prevented from tipping by the vehicle structure or other cargo.
  • Paper roll width is more than 2 times its diameter.

Solution #1:

  • Either band the roll to other rolls.
  • Or brace it.
  • Or use tiedowns.

Diagram of truck properly loaded with paper rolls

Width is two times greater than the diameter

Situation #2:

  • The forwardmost roll(s) in a group of paper rolls is not prevented from tipping or falling forward by vehicle structure or other cargo.
  • Paper roll width is more than 1.75 times its diameter.

Solution #2:

  • Either band the roll to other rolls.
  • Or brace it.
  • Or use tiedowns.

Picture of two paper rolls

Situation #3:

  • A paper roll or the forwardmost roll(s) in a group of paper rolls is not prevented from tipping or falling forward by vehicle structure or other cargo.
  • Paper roll width is more than 1.25 times its diameter.
  • Blocking is used to prevent forward movement.

Solution #3:

The blocking tends to "trip" the roll so additional tipping securement is required.

  • Either band the roll to other rolls.
  • Or brace it.
  • Or use tiedowns.

Picture of two paper rolls

Situation #4

  • A paper roll or the forwardmost roll(s) in a group of paper rolls is not prevented from tipping or falling forward by vehicle structure or other cargo.
  • Paper roll width is more than 1.25 times and less than 1.76 times its diameter.
  • Only friction mats are used for forward securement.

Solution #4:

The friction mat alone is adequate. The friction mat allows the roll to slide on the floor without tripping the roll.

Banding

If paper rolls are banded together:

  • Place rolls tightly against each other to form a stable group.
  • Apply bands tightly.
  • Secure bands with tape, hangers, or other means so that the bands cannot fall off the rolls or slide down to the deck.

Diagram of paper rolls tied together with a strap hanger and tape.

Band Supports

Requirements for friction mats

If a friction mat is used to provide the principal securement for a paper roll, insert the friction mat so that it sticks out from beneath the footprint of the roll in the direction in which it is providing securement.

Paper roll on a friction mat

Special Circumstances: Loading and Securing Paper Rolls with Eyes Vertical in a Sided Vehicle (Section 3.4.3)

Requirements for split loads

Situation

  • A paper roll in a split load is not prevented from forward movement by the vehicle structure or other cargo.

Solution

Prevent forward movement by one of these methods.

  • Friction mats
  • Filling the open space
  • Blocking
  • Bracing
  • Tiedowns
  • Some combination of these

Special Circumstances: Loading and Securing Paper Rolls with Eyes Vertical in a Sided Vehicle (Section 3.4.4)

Stacked Loads

  • Load paper rolls on a second layer only if the bottom layer extends to the front of the vehicle.
  • Prevent forward, rearward, or side-to-side movement:
    • Either by the same means required for the bottom layer
    • Or by the use of a blocking roll from a lower layer.
  • A roll in the rearmost row of any layer must not be raised using dunnage.

Note: The Blocking row must be at least 38 mm (1.5 in) taller than other rolls, or must be raised at least 38 mm (1.5 inches) using dunnage.

Picture of paper rolls stacked on top of each other.

Special Circumstances: Loading and Securing Paper Rolls with Eyes Horizontal in a Sided Vehicle (Section 3.4.5)

Requirements for eyes crosswise: prevent forward and rearward movement

To prevent paper rolls from rolling or shifting in the forward and rearward directions:

  • Either position the rolls in contact with the vehicle structure or other cargo.
  • Or use chocks, wedges, tiedowns, blocking, and bracing.

Note: Chocks, wedges or blocking used to secure intermediate rolls from forward or rearward movement during loading do not have to be secured in place.

Note: Chocks, Wedges, or Blocking Securing the Front or Rear Roll - Hold in place by some means in addition to friction so they cannot become unintentionally unfastened or loose while the vehicle is in transit. This is often accomplished with nails.

Picture of person hammering in a wedge under the tied down paper rolls

Requirements for eyes crosswise: secure rearmost roll

Do not secure the rearmost roll with:

  • Either the rear doors of the vehicle or intermodal container
  • Or blocking held in place by those doors.

The doors are not designed or intended as a cargo securing device. The rolls may push the doors open during transit or onto loading dock personnel when the doors are opened.

Requirements for eyes crosswise: prevent rolls from shifting toward either wall

If there is more than a total of 203 mm (8 in) of space between the ends of a paper roll and other rolls or the walls of the vehicle, use one of these methods:

  • Void fillers (such as honeycomb)
  • Blocking
  • Bracing
  • Friction mats
  • Tiedowns

Special Circumstances: Loading and Securing Paper Rolls with Eyes Horizontal in a Sided Vehicle (Section 3.4.6)

Requirements for eyes crosswise: secure stacks of paper rolls from front-to-back movement

  • Do not load paper rolls on a second layer unless the bottom layer extends to the front of the vehicle.
  • Load paper rolls on higher layers only if all wells in the layer beneath are filled.

Paper roll

  • Secure the foremost roll in each upper layer (or any roll with an empty well in front of it) against forward movement:
    • Either by placing it in a well formed by two rolls on the lower row whose diameter is equal to or greater than that of the roll on the upper row.
    • Or by banding it to other rolls.
    • Or by blocking it against an eye-vertical blocking roll resting on the floor of the vehicle that is at least 1.5 times taller than the diameter of the roll being blocked.

If the rearmost roll in each upper layer is located in either of the last two wells formed by the rearmost rolls in the layer below, band it to the other rolls.

Diagram of paper rolls where the cargos bottom layer is at the front of the vehice. There is also second level of paper rolls. All are tied down.

No paper rolls in second layer unless bottom layer extends to front of vehicle

Requirements for eyes crosswise: prevent stacked rolls from shifting toward either wall

If there is more than a total of 203 mm (8 in) of space between the ends of a paper roll and other rolls or the walls of the vehicle, use one of these methods.

  • Void fillers (such as honeycomb)
  • Blocking
  • Bracing
  • Friction mats
  • Tiedowns

These are the same requirements that are used to secure a single layer of paper rolls.

Special Circumstances: Loading and Securing Paper Rolls with Eyes Horizontal in a Sided Vehicle (Section 3.4.7)

Requirements for eyes lengthwise: prevent movement

Direction of Potential Movement Methods to Prevent Movement
Forward
  • Vehicle structure
  • Other cargo
  • Blocking
  • Tiedowns
Rearward
  • Other cargo
  • Blocking
  • Fiction mats
  • Tiedowns
Side - to - Side
  • Vehicle wall
  • Other cargo
  • Chocks, wedges, or blocking of adequate size

Note: hocks, Wedges, or Blocking Securing the Front or Rear Roll - Hold in place by some means in addition to friction so they cannot become unintentionally unfastened or loose while the vehicle is in transit. This is often accomplished with nails.

Special Circumstances: Loading and Securing Paper Rolls with Eyes Horizontal in a Sided Vehicle (Section 3.4.8)

Requirements for eyes lengthwise: stacked loads

  • Do not load paper rolls in an upper layer if another roll will fit in the layer beneath.
  • Form an upper layer by placing the paper rolls in the wells formed by the rolls beneath.

Eyes lengthwise: prevent forward and rearward movement

Secure a roll in an upper layer against forward and rearward movement:

  • Either by any of the means required for the bottom layer.
  • Or by using a blocking roll.
  • Or by banding it to other rolls.

Special Circumstances: Loading and Securing Paper Rolls on a Flatbed Vehicle or a Curtain-Sided Vehicle (Section 3.4.9)

Requirements for eyes vertical or with eyes horizontal and lengthwise (Section 3.4.9.1)

  • Load and secure the paper rolls as described for a sided vehicle.
  • Attach tiedowns to secure entire load according to the general cargo securement requirements in Section 2.

Note: Stacked loads of paper rolls with eyes vertical are prohibited

Requirements for eyes crosswise (Section 3.4.9.2)

  • Prevent each roll from rolling or shifting forward and rearward by:
    • Contact with the vehicle structure.
    • Contact with other cargo.
    • Chocks, wedges, blocking or bracing of adequate size.
    • Tiedowns.
  • Use side-to-side or front-to-back tiedowns to prevent side-to-side movement.

Note: Chocks, wedges, and blocking must be held in place by some additional means to friction so they may not become unfastened or loose while the vehicle is in transit.


Picture of truck with paper rolls on the back
 


 

Driver's Handbook on Cargo Securement - Chapter 7: Concrete Pipe Loaded Crosswise

Picture of concrete pipe loaded crosswide cargo

What Does This Section Cover? (Section 3.5.1)

The specific requirements for concrete pipe apply to the transportation of certain concrete pipe loaded crosswise on a platform trailer or vehicle.

What is exempt from these specific requirements?

Follow general cargo securement requirements (Section 2) when transporting the following pipe:

  • Concrete pipe that is grouped together into a single rigid article and may not roll.
  • Concrete pipe loaded in a sided vehicle or container.
  • Concrete pipe eyes vertical and concrete pipe loaded lengthwise.

What is covered under these specific requirements?

  • Any concrete pipe loaded crosswise on a platform trailer or vehicle that is not exempt.

Securing Concrete Pipe

To make sure that concrete pipe does not roll or slide:

  • Load pipe as compactly as possible.
  • Immobilize symmetrically stacked pipes by securing them in groups.
  • Use blocking systems and tiedowns to increase the effect of friction.

Illustration of truck using blocking systems and tiedowns

General tiedown requirements (Section 3.5.2)

  • The aggregate working load limit of all tiedowns on any group of pipe must be more than half the total weight of all pipes in the group.
  • Run a properly tensioned tiedown through a pipe in an upper tier or over lengthwise tiedowns. It will secure all the pipe beneath it on which the tiedown causes pressure.

Blocking requirements (Section 3.5.3)

  • Blocking must prevent the pipe from rolling or rotating.
  • Blocking may be one or more pieces placed at equal distances from the center of a pipe
  • There are two blocking options:
    • Place one piece of blocking so that it extends at least half the distance from the center to each end of the pipe.

Illustration of a truck using one piece blocking extending half the distance from the center to each end of the pipe

Blocking Option #1

  • Place two pieces of blocking at the outside quarter points.

Illustration of a truck using two piece blocking at the outside quarter points

Blocking Option #2

  • Blocking must be:
    • Placed against the pipe
    • Secured to prevent it from moving out from under the pipe.
  • Timber blocking must have a minimum nominal dimension of 10 x 15 cm (4 x 6 in).

Arranging the Load (Section 3.5.4)

Requirements for arranging pipe with different diameter (Section 3.5.4.1)

  • Load pipe of more than one diameter in groups that consist of pipe of only one size.
  • Secure each group of pipe separately.

Arranging pipe with different diameter
Arranging pipe with different diameter

Requirements for arranging a bottom tier (Section 3.5.4.2)

There are two ways to arrange the bottom tier:

  • Cover the full length of the vehicle.

Diagram of one row of concrete pipe's that go the full length of the truck

Arranging a bottom tier - Option #1

  • Arrange as a partial tier in one or two groups.

Diagram of one row of concrete pipe's that go the half the length of the truck. Diagram of two groups of concrete pipe's that are seperate but are still only one row.

Arranging a bottom tier - Option #2

Requirements for arranging an upper tier (Section 3.5.4.3)

  • Place pipe only in the wells formed by pipes in the tier below.
  • Do not start an additional tier unless all wells in the tier beneath are filled.

Requirements for arranging the top tier (Section 3.5.4.4)

  • Arrange the top tier as a complete tier, a partial tier in one group, or a partial tier in two groups.

Diagram of two rows of concrete pipe's stacked on top of each other that go the full length of the truck

Complete tier

Diagram of two rows of concrete pipe's stacked on top of each other that go the full length of the truck. The top row is half the size of the bottom row. The top row pipes are stacked at the center

Partial tier in one group

Diagram of two rows of concrete pipe's stacked on top of each other that go the full length of the truck. The top row is half the size of the bottom row. The top row pipes are stacked at the ends of the bottom row.

Partial tier in two groups

Requirements for arranging bell pipe (Section 3.5.4.5)

On spacers

  • Load bell pipe on at least two longitudinal spacers tall enough to ensure that the bell is clear of the deck.

One tier

  • Load bell pipe on one tier so that the bells alternate on opposite sides of the vehicle.
  • If possible, the ends of consecutive pipe must be staggered within the allowable width.
  • If the ends cannot be staggered, they must be aligned.

Diagram of bell pipes where there are arranged so they alternate how they are layed down. Diagram of bell pipes where they are alternated how they are layed down, but the ends do touch.
Staggered endsAligned ends

More than one tier with complete tiers

  • Bells of the bottom tier must all be on the same side of the vehicle
  • Bells of the upper tiers must be are on the opposite side of the vehicle from the bells of the tier below.

Alternate bell ends from tier to tier
Alternate bell ends from tier to tier

More than one tier with partial upper tier

  • Pipe in the bottom tier that do not support a pipe above must have their bells alternating on opposite sides of the vehicle.

[Diagram of bell pipes on the bottom row are layed in one direction and the pipes in the top row are alligned in the opposite direction. This top row only covers one end of the bottom row.]
Alternate bell ends when pipe on bottom does not support pipe above

Special Circumstances: Securing Pipe with an Inside Diameter Up to 1.143 mm (45 in) (Section 3.5.5)

Concrete pipe with an inside diameter up to 1.143 m (45 in) can form a complete single tier on a typical flatbed vehicle. Larger pipe often can only be carried as a partial tier.

Note: This pipe diameter of 1.143 m (45 in) is simply a convenient breaking point between "medium" and "large" diameter pipe.

Note: At least one tiedown through the front pipe of the bottom tier must run rearward at an angle not more than 45 with the horizontal when viewed from the side of the vehicle, when ever practical.

At least one tiedown through the rear pipe of the bottom tier must run forward at an angle not more than 45 with the horizontal when viewed from the side of the vehicle, when ever practical.

Requirements for stabilizing the bottom tier (Section 3.5.5.1)

  • Arrange the load properly (see 3.5.4)
  • Immobilize the front and rear pipe with on of the following elements.
    • Blocking
    • Wedges
    • Vehicle end structure
    • Stakes
    • Locked pipe unloader
    • Other equivalent means

Appropriate stabilization of bottom tier
Appropriate stabilization of bottom tier

Tiedown requirements (Section 3.5.5.2)

  • Pipe many be secured individually or as a group.
  • Tiedowns through the pipe must be chains.
  • Front-to-back tiedowns may be chain or wire rope.

Individually

  • Run a tiedown though the pipe.

As a group

  • Place lengthwise tiedowns over the group of pipes:
    • Either one 13 mm (1/2 in) chain or wire rope
    • Or two 10 mm (3/8 in) diameter chain or wire rope
  • Place one crosswise tiedown for every 3.0 m (10 ft) of load length.
    • Either attach the side-to-side tiedown through a pipe
    • Or pass the tiedown over both front-to-back tiedowns between two pipes on the top tier.

Appropriate use of tiedowns for a group of pipes

Appropriate use of tiedowns for a group of pipes

Requirements for stabilizing the top tier (Section 3.5.5.2)

If the first pipe of a group in the top tier is not at the front of the tier beneath:

  • Attach an additional tiedown that runs rearward at an angle not more than 45 to the horizontal when viewed from the side of the vehicle, whenever practicle.
  • Pass tiedown either through the front pipe of the upper tier or outside the front pipe and over both longitudinal tiedowns.

Diagram of bar at 45 degrees to secure the top load of the concrete pipes

Correct securement of front pipe in partial second tier

Diagram of bar at 45 degrees to secure the top load of the concrete pipes

Correct securement of front pipe in partial

Special Circumstances: Securing Large Pipe with an Inside Diameter over 1143 mm (45 in) (Section 3.5.6)

Requirements for stabilizing the pipe

Arrange the load properly (see 3.5.4)
Immobilize the front and rear pipe with on of the following methods:

  • Blocking
  • Wedges
  • Vehicle end structure
  • Stakes
  • Locked pipe unloader
  • Other equivalent means

For all other pipe, use additional blocks and/or wedges that are nailed in place.

Requirements for securing the pipe

Secure each pipe with tiedowns through the pipe.
Run at least one tiedown through each pipe in the front half of the load. This includes the middle one if there are an odd number. The tiedown must run rearward at an angle not more than 45 with the horizontal when viewed from the side of the vehicle, whenever practicable.
Run at least one tiedown through each pipe in the rear half of the load. The tiedown must run forward at an angle not more than 45 with the horizontal when viewed from the side of the vehicle, whenever practicable. This holds each pipe firmly in contact with adjacent pipe.
Run at least two tiedowns through the front and rear pipe if they are not also in contact with vehicle end structure, stakes, a locked pipe unloader, or other equivalent means.

[Diagram of three concrete pipes next to one another. There are blocker bars at each end of the set and bars connecting each pipe.]

Correct securement of large pipe

Run at least two tiedowns through the front and rear pipe if they are not also in contact with one of the following:

  • Either the vehicle end structure
  • Or the stakes
  • Or a locked pipe unloader
  • Or other equivalent means.

[Note:] If only one pipe is transported, or if several pipes are transported without contact between other pipes, the requirements of this section apply to each pipe as a single front and rear article. Tiedowns must be used through that pipe.


Securement - Chapter 8: Intermodal Containers

Picture of truck with a intermodal container

What Does This Section Cover? (Section 3.6.1)

The requirements in this section apply to the transportation of all intermodal containers.

Note: When securing cargo contained within an intermodal container, follow general cargo securement requirements (Section 2) or, if applicable, follow the commodity specific requirements.

Special Circumstances: Securing Loaded Intermodal Containers on Container Chassis Vehicles (Section 3.6.2)

Requirements for securing the container

Secure each intermodal container to the container chassis with securement or integral locking devices that cannot accidentally become unfastened. Integral locking devices do not have to be adjustable.

Diagram of a Integral Locking Device
Integral Locking Device

Note: If necessary, use secondary attachments to ensure that latches remain fastened in transit.

Securing devices must restrain the container from moving more than:

  • 1.27 cm (1/2 in) forward.
  • 1.27 cm (1/2 in) rearward.
  • 1.27 cm (1/2 in) to the right.
  • 1.27 cm (1/2 in) to the left.2.54 cm (1 in) vertically.

Secure the front and rear of the container independently.

  • 2 latches on the chassis engage anchor points towards or at the front of the container.
  • 2 latches on the chassis engage anchor points towards or at the rear of the container.

If a latch is missing or broken, secure the corner by an alternative means, such as:

  • Chain.
  • Wire rope.

Special Circumstances: Securing Loaded Intermodal Containers on Non-Chassis Vehicles (Section 3.6.3)

Requirements for positioning the container

  • Position the intermodal container so that:
    • Either all lower corners rest upon the vehicle.
    • Or the corners are supported by a structure capable of bearing the weight of the container. Independently secure the support structure to the vehicle.

Diagram of intermodal container cargo where All four corners are resting upon the vehicle
All four corners are resting upon the vehicle

Requirements for securing the container

  • Secure each container to the vehicle by:
    • Either chains, wire ropes, or integral devices that are fixed to all lower corners.
    • Or crossed chains that are fixed to all upper corners.
    • Or both.
  • Secure the front and rear of the loaded container independently.
  • Secure the four corners using tiedowns that are attached to the loaded container.
    • The tiedowns must have an aggregate working load limit of at least 50% of the loaded weight of the loaded container.
  • Attach each chain, wire rope, or integral locking device to the container in a manner that prevents it from becoming unfastened while in transit.

Special Circumstances: Securing Empty Intermodal Containers on Non-Chassis Vehicles (Section 3.6.4)

Empty intermodal containers transported on non-chassis vehicles do not have to have all lower corners resting upon the vehicle or supported by a structure if they meet each of the following four requirements:

  • Requirement 1: The container is balanced and positioned on the vehicle so it is stable before adding tiedowns or other securing devices.
  • Requirement 2: The container does not hang over the front or rear of the trailer by more than 1.5 m (5 ft).
  • Requirement 3: The container does not interfere with the vehicles maneuverability.
  • Requirement 4: The container is secured to prevent side-to-side, forward, rearward, and upward movement by:
    • Either by following the requirements for loaded containers.
    • Or by following the general cargo securement requirements (Section 2) for tiedowns.

 
Securement - Chapter 9: Automobiles, Light Trucks, and Vans

A truck being towed

What Does This Section Cover? (Section 3.7.1)

The requirements in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans that individually weigh 4500 kg (10,000 lb.) or less.

Note: Vehicles that are heavier than 4500 kg (10,000 lb.) must be secured in accordance with the provisions of Section 10, Heavy Vehicles, Equipment, and Machinery.

Securing Automobiles, Light Trucks, and Vans (Section 3.7.2)

Tiedowns attached to the vehicle being transported are the most effective securement system.

Securement requirement

  • Use at least two tiedowns at both the front and rear of the cargo to prevent movement.
    • Side-to-side
    • Forward and rearward
    • Vertically

Note: More tiedowns may be required to satisfy the general cargo securement requirements. The Standard states: "The sum of the working load limits from all tiedowns must be at least 50% of the weight of the cargo."

Requirements for tiedowns designed to be affixed to the structure

  • These tiedowns must use the securement mounting points on the vehicle that have been designed for that purpose.

Requirements for tiedowns designed to fit over or around the wheels

  • Provide restraint in the side-to-side, forward, rearward, and vertical directions.

Edge protectors

  • Not required for synthetic webbing at points where the webbing comes in contact with the tires.

 
Driver's Handbook on Cargo Securement - Chapter 10: Heavy Vehicles, Equipment, and Machinery

Picture of a heavy equipment digger

What Does This Section Cover? (Section 3.8.1)

The requirements in this section apply to the transportation of heavy vehicles, equipment, and machinery that:

  • Operate on wheels or tracks, such as front end loaders, bulldozers, tractors, and power shovels.
  • Individually weigh more than 4500 kg (10,000 lb.).

Note: Vehicles, equipment, and machinery that are lighter than 4500kg (10,000 lb.) may also be secured in accordance with the provisions of this section, as well as with the general cargo securement requirements (Section 2) or Section 9, Automobiles, Light Trucks, and Vans.

Preparing Equipment To Be Transported (Section 3.8.2)

Requirements

Lower and secure to the vehicle all accessory equipment (hydraulic shovels, booms, etc.).
Restrain articulated vehicles to prevent articulation while in transit.

Parking Brake

Set the parking brake on the equipment being transported.

Heavy equipment chained, being transported.

Special Circumstances: Securing Heavy Vehicles, Equipment, or Machinery with Crawler Tracks or Wheels (Section 3.8.2.1)

Tiedown requirements

  • Restrain cargo using a minimum of four tiedowns, each having a WLL of at least 2,268 kg (5,000 lb.).
    • Prevents cargo movement in the side-to-side, forward, rearward, and vertical directions.
  • Attach tiedowns:
    • Either at the front and rear of the vehicle.
    • Or at the mounting points on the vehicle designed for that purpose.

Diagram of light-weight truck tied down in four locations
Cargo is restrained using at least 4 tiedowns

Note: More tiedowns may be required to satisfy the general cargo securement requirements (Section 2) that state: "The sum of the working load limits from all tiedowns must be at least 50% of the weight of the cargo."


Driver's Handbook on Cargo Securement - Chapter 11: Flattened or Crushed Vehicles

Black and White photo of a truck carrying crushed cars

What Does This Section Cover? (Section 3.9.1)

The requirements in theis section apply to the transportation of vehicles such as automobiles, light trucks, and vans that have been flattened or crushed.

Securing Flattened or Crushed Vehicles

Securement Requirements (Section 3.9.2)

Transport flattened or crushed vehicles so that:

  • Cargo does not shift while in transit AND
  • Loose parts from the flattened vehicles do not dislodge and fall from the transport vehicle

Do not use synthetic webbing to secure vehicles.

Transport vehicle options ( Section 3.9.2.1)

Secure flattened or crushed vehicles on a vehicle that meets one of the following four options.

Option 1

Has containment walls on four sides that:

Extend to the full height of the load
Block against cargo movement in the forward, rearward, and sideways directions.

Option 2

Has containment walls on three sides that:

  • Extend to the full height of the load
  • Block against cargo movement in the forward, rearward, and one sideways direction.

Secures each stack of vehicles with a minimum of two tiedowns, each having a minimum WLL of 2,268 kg (5,000 lb.).

Option 3

Has containment walls on two sides that:

Extend to the full height of the load.
Block against cargo movement in the forward and rearward.

Secures each stack of vehicles with a minimum of three tiedowns, each having a minimum WLL of 2,268 kg (5,000 lb.).

Option 4

Has a minimum of four tiedowns per vehicle stack with each tiedown having a minimum WLL of 2,268 kg (5,000 lb.).

Note: More tiedowns may be required to satisfy the general cargo securement requirement from Section 2 that state: "The sum of the working load limits from all tiedowns must be at least 50% of the weight of the cargo."

Containing Loose Parts (Section 3.9.2.2)

Use a containment system that:

  • Prevents loose parts from falling from all four sides of the vehicle AND
  • Extends to the full height of the cargo.

The containment system can consist of one or a combination of the following methods.

  • Structural walls.
  • Sides or sideboards.
  • Suitable covering material.

The use of synthetic material for containment of loose parts is permitted.

 

 

 












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